Mohammad Reza Nourbakhsh, PT, PhD, Amir Massoud Arab, PT, MSc

Study Design: A multifactorial cross-sectional nonexperimental design. Objectives: To collectively investigate the association among 17 mechanical factors and occurrence of low back pain (LBP). Background: Several physical characteristics, based on assumptions, clinical findings, and scientific experiments, have been associated with the development of LBP. Controversy exists regarding the degree of association between some of these physical characteristics and LBP. Information regarding the degree of association of each factor to LBP is needed for effective prevention and appropriate treatment strategies.

Objective: To determine if combining intermittent cervical traction with conventional physical therapy methods is more effective than using conventional approaches alone in the improvement of the grip strength and treatment of the patients with unilateral cervical 7 (C7) radiculopathy.

Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT).

Setting: An outpatient physical therapy clinic, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Iran.

Objective: To describe the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of five clinical tests used to measure trunk muscle endurance in low back pain.

Design: A cross-sectional non-experimental design.

Setting: Orthopaedic and physical therapy departments of four hospitals and outpatient physical therapy clinics, Tehran, Iran.

Subjects: Convenience sample of 200 subjects participated in this study. Subjects were categorized into four groups: men without low back pain (N = 50, mean (SD) age = 38 (12) years), women without low back pain (N = 50, mean (SD) age = 43 (11) years), men with low back pain (N = 50, mean (SD) age = 39 (12) years) and women with low back pain (N = 50, mean (SD) age = 43 (12) years).

Mahyar Salavati, Mojgan Moghadam, Ismaeil Ebrahimi, Amir Massoud Arab


The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in postural stability with fatigue of the frontal and sagittal movers of the lower extremities. There were four test sessions, with a randomized order assigned according to the muscles tested and the plane of motion. Subjects were 20 healthy men (age: 22.6 ± ۲٫۴ years, height: 173.7 ± ۳٫۶ cm, weight: 63.3 ± ۷٫۹ kg). During each session, one set of muscle groups was fatigued using isokinetic contractions: ankle plantar/dorsi flexors, ankle evertor/invertors, hip flexor/extensors or hip abductor/adductors.